Annotated Bibliography on Mennonite Interactions with Indigenous People in Paraguay

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Electronic Resources

Loewen, Jacob A. "Mennonites, Chaco Indians, and the Lengua Spirit World." Mennonite Quarterly Review 39, no. 4 (October 1965): 280-306.

Loewen, Jacob A. "A Mennonite Encounter with the 'Innermost of the Lengua Indians." Mennonite Quarterly Review. 39, no. 1 (January 1965): 40-67.

Annotated Bibliography

  • Asociación de Servicios de Cooperación Indígena - Mennonita. (accessed 12 June 2009).
This is the official website for the Association for Indigenous - Mennonite Cooperative Services. The site has information about the organization's objectives, news releases, and data about indigenous groups.
This article describes the beginnings and growth of "Licht den Indianern (Light to the Indians)" mission that the Fernheim Colony formed in 1935.
This article discusses the mission to the Lengua Indians that Mennonites began in 1935.
  • Horst, René Harder. "The Stroessner Regime and Indigenous Resistance in Paraguay." University Press of Florida, 2007
This book looks at the evolving policies of Alfred Stroessner's regime (1954-1989) towards Paraguay's indigenous people and the prominent role religious missions played in implementing the state's integration strategy. Mennonites were significant partners of the state in these efforts, and Horst's work is an important alternative reading of Mennonite mission history among indigenous peoples in Paraguay.
  • Kroeker, Peter J. "Lenguas and Mennonites: A Study of Cultural Change in the Paraguayan Chaco, 1928-1970." Masters Thesis, Wichita State University, 1970.
In this masters thesis Kroeker discusses the interactions between Mennonites and the Lengua people in the Paraguayan Chaco from 1928 to 1970. He includes background on Mennonite and Lengua history in the Chaco and then reviews early encounters and mission settlement programs. He also analyzes the changes in Lengua culture that occurred during this time period.
  • Loewen, Jacob A. "Mennonites, Chaco Indians, and the Lengua Spirit World." Mennonite Quarterly Review 39, no. 4 (October 1965): 280-306.

_______________ . "A Mennonite Encounter with the 'Innermost of the Lengua Indians." Mennonite Quarterly Review. 39, no. 1 (January 1965): 40-67.

Loewen discusses cultural misunderstandings between German Mennonites in Mennonite Colonies and Lengua individuals and between indigenous culture and Mennonite Christianity for Lengua Christian converts.
  • Ratzlaff, Gerhard. One Body-Many Parts: The Mennonite Churches in Paraguay. Asunción, Paraguay: Gerhard Ratzlaff, 2008.
In ´´One Body-Many Parts´´ Ratzlaff describes the various Mennonite Churches in Paraguay. Ratzlaff includes a chapter on early missions to indigenous populations in the Chaco and contemporary Lengua Churches.
  • Redekop, Calvin. Strangers Become Neighbors: Mennonite and Indigenous Relations in the Paraguayan Chaco. Scottdale, Pennsylvania: Harold Press, 1980.
Redekop offers an analysis of Paraguayan Mennonites' Indian resettlement program in the Paraguayan Chaco ten years after its inception.
  • Indígenas del Chaco Central Paraguayo: Etnohistoria e Identidad Contemporánea. Chaco Central Paraguay: ASCIM, 2005.
Published in 2005 this anthropological study surveys indigenous populations throughout Paraguay.
  • Stahl, Wilmar. Culturas en Interacción: Una Antropología Vivida en el Chaco Paraguayo. Asunción: Editorial El Lector, 2007.
  • Stahl, Wilmar. Escenario Indígena Chaqueño: Pasado y Presente. Filadelfia: ASCIM, 1982.
  • Stahl, Wilmar (Author) and Klassen, Eduard (Editor). Indígenas del Chaco Central Paraguayo. Chaco Central Paraguayo: ASCIM, 2005.
Wilmar Stahl is a noted Paraguayan Mennonite who has devoted his life to anthropological study of the indigenous groups in the Paraguayan Chaco. As such, all three of these sources offer useful information about indigenous groups in the Paraguayan Chaco. Indígenas del Chaco Central Paraguayo describes the Enlhet and Enenlhet and the Nivaclé as well as several other indigenous groups. Culturas en Interacción is an extensive anthropological study of indigenous groups in the Paraguayan Chaco. In this study Stahl includes a section on Mennonite missions to indigenous populations. The most dated of the three works is Escenario Indígena Chaqueño, but it still offers important insights into Mennonite interactions with indigenous populations. Stahl includes descriptions of the Enlhet and Enenlhet people and discussion about interactions between Mennonites and indigenous groups.
  • Toews, J.J. The Mennonite Brethren Mission in Latin America. Hillsboro, KS: Board of Christian Literature of the General Conference of the Mennonite Brethren Church, 1975.
In this work Toews covers the history of Mennonite Brethren (MB) mission work in Latin America. He discusses Mennonite Brethren immigration to Latin America, and he includes chapters on missions in Brazil, Colombia, and Paraguay. In the chapter on Paraguay Toews describes initial mission efforts, the "Licht den Indianern" (Light to the Indians), and missions into Spanish-speaking areas.

External Links

Asociación de Servicios de Cooperación Indígena - Mennonita (Association for Indigenous - Mennonite Cooperative Services) Official Website