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- Anabaptism: A term meaning "rebaptize" for those who, during the sixteenth century in Europe, had been baptized as infants but believed that baptism was not what Jesus intended. So some Christians chose to be baptized a second time, as adults who could make a conscious choice to follow Christ. That and other decisions were considered in some places to be rebellion against the government as well as the church, and many who made this choice paid with their lives by drowning or being burned at the stake. Anabaptism today refers to groups who trace their origins to this movement. Also known as "believers church" for their belief that one joins Jesus' church by conscious decision, and that the church must be separate from government. However, not all groups considered believers churches have historic connections to sixteenth-century Anabaptism.
- Believers Church: The term believers church has been applied to the Anabaptists and later the Mennonites, as well as to the Church of the Brethren and similar groups. As a descriptive term, it includes more than Mennonites and Brethren. Believers church now represents specific theological understandings, such as believers baptism, commitment to the Rule of Christ in Matthew 18:15–20 as crucial for church membership, belief in the power of love in all relationships, and willingness to follow Christ in the way of the cross.